From The Independent on Sunday
At Prime Minister’s Questions in the Commons last Wednesday Tony Blair stated that “it is important for the whole debate [on genetic modification] to be conducted on the basis of scientific evidence, not on the basis of prejudice”.
Exactly so. But what does the science actually indicate? Not, I think, what he appears to believe.
A public debate is now taking place before the Government decides later this year whether to allow food from GM crops to go on sale commercially. Tony Blair’s contribution has been to emphasise the importance of the biotech industry to the UK.
Contrary to the assurances of the biotech companies that genetic engineering is precise and simply extends traditional breeding techniques, it is actually quite different. When genetic crops are engineered, the gene is inserted randomly, out of a sequence that has evolved over hundreds of millions of years.
But genes don’t operate in isolation; they interact with each other. Genetic engineers have assumed that each gene has one function, but the recent discovery that human beings have only some 30,000 genes to produce the quarter of a million proteins in the human body shows that this premise was wrong. Most genes are multi-functional. It is not known how to determine artificially a single function of a gene without triggering other unpredicted and undesired effects.
The random position and lack of control of the gene’s functions could change any character of the plant and might not be evident immediately. One example is the increased lignin in GM soya which only became apparent in hot weather when the stems began to split. In the United States there are already many examples of undesired effects only being identified after approval had been given – again one example is GM cotton where the cotton boils became deformed.
Another problem is that genetic engineers usually introduce other material – viruses or bacteria – into the plant which have the role of inserting the gene, activating it, and identifying where transfers have been successful. Viruses in particular are good at inserting their genetic material into other organisms. But that opens up the risk of “horizontal gene transfer” whereby genes transfer out of the genetically modified organism (GMO) and into other organisms. But we don’t know how frequently or intensively this might occur, or what the safety implications might be.
GM technology also often involves producing novel substances which may cause allergic reactions. If such substances are used in food, consumers may quite often be exposed to this risk. It was recently found, for example, that a GM soya with a brazil nut gene could cause allergic reactions.
A further health risk is that creating herbicide (weedkiller) resistant plants allows the application of much more toxic herbicides to the growing plants. People therefore become exposed to more toxic residues than previously. In the recent case of the GM forage maize, Chardon LL, the herbicide used was glufosinate, a neurotoxin and a teratogen (ie it damages embryos). What is particularly worrying is that there seems to be a 10 per cent reconversion rate of the degraded herbicide back to the original toxic form in the gut.
Given that there is so much uncertainty, it might be expected that there would be routine testing of GMOs for healthy effects as a legal requirement. This applies to new pharmaceutical drugs which are subjected to lengthy trials so that all side-effects can be uncovered. However, whilst it is often claimed that all GMOs have been “rigorously tested”, all that this testing amounts to is deciding whether a GM crop is similar in terms of its composition to the non-GM plant. This is justified under the rubric of “substantial equivalence”, which was originally a marketing term, and is scientifically vacuous. It wholly misses the point that health concerns are focused, not on known compounds, but on the effects of the GM technology which are unpredictable.
It is really extraordinary that there have so far been virtually no independent studies of the health effects of GM. What there is has mostly been done by the companies themselves. We are constantly told that there is no evidence of any greater health risk from a GM crop than from its non-GM counterpart. What is not added is that there have been no health checks to find out. Indeed, the only Government-sponsored work ever carried on the health impacts of GMOs was Dr Pusztai’s work on rats and GM potatoes, and then, when it found negative effects, it was widely rubbished in government circles, even though his paper had been peer-reviewed six times before publication.
These uncertainties have been acknowledged by some of the leading UK institutions. The Royal Society, in its reports last year, said that the potential health effects of GM foods should be rigorously investigated before allowing them into baby food or to be marketed to pregnant or breast-feeding women, elderly people, and those with chronic disease. This was because GM “could lead to unpredicted harmful changes in the nutritional state of foods”.
Any baby food containing GM products could lead to a dramatic rise in allergies, and unexpected shifts in oestrogen levels in GM soya-based infant feed might affect sexual development in children. Infants, the report said, are very vulnerable because they have such a narrow diet. If there were any nutritional deficiencies in their food, such as fewer fatty acids, their health would suffer, especially the infant bowel function since even small nutritional changes could cause bowel obstruction.
Similarly, the only human GM trial, commissioned ironically by the Food Standards Agency, found that GM DNA did in fact transfer to bacteria in the human gut. Previously many scientists had denied that this was possible. But instead of this finding being regarded as a serious discovery which should be checked and re-checked, the spin was that this was nothing new and did not involve any health risk – a Nelsonian putting the telescope to the blind eye if ever there was one.
A recent BMA report noted that “any conclusion upon the safety of introducing GM materials into the UK is premature as there is insufficient evidence to inform the decision-making process at the moment”. In their report to the Scottish Parliament six months ago, the BMA stated that “there has not yet been a robust and thorough search into the potentially harmful effects of GM foodstuffs on human health… In the UK not enough is known to enable us to give an accurate risk of assessment of the health impact of GM crops on the health of local communities”.
Equally, a recent report from the General Medical Council stated that GM could switch on “silent” genes whose effects we know little about or know to be toxic. They also noted that GM elements in food might be taken up by bacteria in the gut, and this could alter the balance of bacteria in the gut, leading to possible instability or further modification of GM food in later generations. Their conclusion was that more knowledge was needed of the effects of GM on metabolism, organ development, immune and endocrine systems, and gut flora.
Finally, it is often claimed by the biotech companies that there have been millions of people consuming GM foods over several years in the US, but without any ill-effects. However, there have actually been no epidemiological studies to support this claim. What is known is that coinciding with the introduction of GMOs in food in the US, food-derived illnesses are believed by the official US Centres for Disease Control to have doubled over the past seven years. And there are many reports of a rise in allergies – indeed a 50 per cent increase in soya allergies has been reported in the UK since imports of GM soya began. None of this of course proves the connection with GM, but it certainly suggests an urgent need for further investigation of this possible link. Typically, however, this has not been forthcoming.
As the Prime Minister said, we should act on the basis of science, not prejudice. Quite so. But since the science is still clouded with such deep uncertainty, that means deferring decisions till the science is clear and reliable, not rushing to desired conclusions which cannot be scientifically supported.
From The Independent on Sunday
From The Times
World peace and the future of the planet are threatened by the overwhelming power of an “aggressive and unilateralist America” run by a right-wing President with close connections to the oil industry.
Such is the view of Michael Meacher, who until being sacked, or “liberated” as he put it, in last week’s reshuffle had spent six years as Environment Minister. During his period in office he was described as Tony Blair’s green fig leaf, a lone voice supporting environmental policies or even the last Bennite in government.
In an interview with The Times, Mr Meacher insisted that none of this was really true. He is his own man and a supporter of the Prime Minister and of a Government that has worked as a team since coming to power to “embed a fresh approach to sustainable development”.
His charity does not, however, extend across the Atlantic to George Bush, with whom Mr Blair has forged a close alliance in the war against terrorism. Mr Meacher’s departure from the Government comes as the Kyoto Protocol for tackling climate change is “on the cusp” of international ratification, despite the US President’s opposition.
He said that America’s stated reasons for refusing to sign up are “ridiculous and wrong-headed”. The cost of adhering to the protocol, he said, would be between 0.1 and 1 per cent of the extra growth predicted for America by 2010. “They say, what about the rest of the world like China and India? But those coutries will only come on board if the rich nations show they mean business.”
Instead, he suggested that a more sinister motive may lie behind Washington’s decision as he highlighted the new US investments in oil production in Africa and South America. “Everyone knows that George Bush is a Texas oil man, his family have long-term connections, nearly all his senior advisers and closest aides have connections to a very, very powerful oil industry,” he said. “I think that is a relevant consideration. They believe in the oil business and the traditional way of generating power and if they gain personally that is a bonus.”
Mr Meacher said that these interests played their part in the decision to go to war in Iraq: “America is pursuing future oil supplies with extreme vigour, so it is difficult, when you look at Iraq, which has the second biggest oil reserves in the world, not to think it was a factor.”
He did not, contrary to reports at the time, oppose military action. “What persuaded me was the idea that getting rid of a murderous, barbarous, genocidal regime responsible for millons of deaths overrode anything else,” he said. “It was a justification for military action.” He added: “It was not the reason why we went to war. My view is that we went to war because America wanted to establish a political and military platform in the Middle East, it saw a need for oil and of course it wished to support Israel. Weapons of mass destruction, if they existed, even on the most threatening predictions, were certainly not going to put Europe or the US at risk. But Tony Blair took the view that if you are a close ally you have more influence than if you are a protagonist. That is a view which still prevails. The problem is that Bush is not Clinton.”
Mr Meacher is deeply concerned about the US “occupation” of Iraq and the sidelining of the UN, suggesting that Mr Blair should start puting some distance between himself and Washington. “The biggest political problem in the world today is the overwhelming power of the US. That is very serious for the world order. How you deal with an aggressive unilateralist like America is a problem for us all, but there are no easy answers.”
Mr Meacher denied that Britain had been too soft on America on Kyoto, saying that Mr Blair had been taken by surprise by Mr Bush’s decision to oppose ratification and had since tried to bring the US “on board” for a programme to reduce fossil-fuel emissions through technological change.
Since being sacked last week, however, he has focused his efforts on the looming government decision on allowing commericial production of genetically modified crops. Mr Meacher said that the GM food lobby had already won its battle in America, partly because of the links between the Washington Adminstration and firms like Monsanto.
Mr Meacher talked about the “happy days” spent negotiating with his EU counterparts on the environment, suggesting that Europe, which has risked a trade war with the US by opposing GM food, could be a bulwark against Washington. He promised to be a “sympathetic but critical friend” of the Government, saying it had done much good for the NHS and education but should pay more attention to a traditional Labour agenda of tackling poverty and improving equality.
From his new position on the backbenches, however, he will have already discovered that his views about Mr Bush chime with those of many of his colleagues. “My view is that we should not get too close to America. It is an important friend and ally, but in the end we should make our judgments about where the public interest lies and we should take note of public opinion in that as well.”